Chapter 2 (Bo-Cam)
Not all, but many of these portraits came from a rare century-old work concerning famous Jesuits, Alfred Hamy's Galerie Illustree. The names are arranged alphabetically in ten chapters: A-Be, Bo-Cam, Can-Cos, Cot-Go, Gr-K, L-Me, Mi-Pe, Pi-Ri, Ro-St, Su-Z. At the end of each entry are listed, in abbreviated form, the specific sources which I used for writing the short sketch for each man. The eleven triliteral symbols (Ban, Bas, DSB, Ham, JLx, McR, JLP, O'M, Som, Tan, Tyl) signify that the information came fromIntoduction to Jesuit Portraits.
Ban = Bangert, William, S.J. A History of the Society of Jesus
Bas = Bernard, S.J. The English Jesuits
DSB = Gillispie, Charles. C. Ed., Dictionary of Scientific Biography
Ham = Hamy, Alfred, S.J. Galerie illustree
JLx = Koch, Ludwig, S.J. Jesuiten Lexicon
McR = McRedmond, Louis To the Greater Glory. New York: MacMillan, 1991
JLP = Mertz, James, S.J. and Murphy, John, S.J. Jesuit Latin Poets
O'M = O'Malley, John, S.J. The First Jesuits
Som = Sommervogel, Carolus Bibliothèque de la compagnie de Jésus
Tan = Tanner, Mathia, S.J. Societas Jesu.
Tyl = Tylinda, Joseph, S.J. Jesuit Saints and Martyrs
Nicolas Bobadilla, S.J.(Castilian: 1511-1590) was one of the first companions of Ignatius of Loyola. He studied rhetoric, logic and theology in Valladolid. He then went to Paris, joined Ignatius, was ordained in Venice and then went to Italy where he traveled through more than 70 dioceses as a preacher and missionary. He worked also in Germany and in Dalmatia. Nicolas was sent by Pope Paul III to help reconcile Juana of Aragon with her husband. He was chosen to go to Portugal at the request King John, but because of his illness was replaced by Francis Xavier. Nicolas had dealings with eight popes, three emperors, numerous electors, German princes, cardinals and prelates through all of Italy. He was a man of much talent and great contrasts, independent and impulsive, outstanding for both accomplishments and imprudence. The Pope kept him from participating in Jesuit deliberations in Rome in 1539 and 1541, Charles V expelled him from Germany in 1548 and his unsuccessful demands for modifications in the Society of Jesus caused papal intervention. His work on frequent and daily Communion was the only one of his works published during his lifetime. Nicolas was the last of the original seven Jesuits to die. (Ban, Ham, JLx, O'M, Som)
St. Andrew Bobola, S.J. (Polish: 1591-1657) suffered one of the most painful martyrdoms ever recorded. Andrew became an outstanding preacher and directed Sodalities from which he recruited assistants to help him in his visits to prisoners, to the poor, in catechizing and helping victims of plagues. Andrew found that many of the Catholics living in Eastern Poland had become Orthodox because they had no Catholic church, so he built one and it soon became a center for all who wanted to return to the Catholic Faith. Two entire villages returned to the Catholic Faith through his preaching. Because ofhrough a town, so he was aware that his martyrdom might not be unthinkable. Then, in May, 1657 the Cossacks attacked Janów and massacred Catholics and Jews. They arrested Andrew and threatened him with torture unless he converted. He was unmoved, so the fanatical Cossacks took him to a butcher's shop, stretched him on the butcher's table, and flayed him alive. After two hours of this pain, during which he continually prayed for his tormentors, he expired. (Ban, JLx, Tyl)
John von Bolland, S.J. (Belgian: 1596-1665) was a Belgian theologian and historian responsible for the Society named in his honor, The Bollandists. The society of Later Pope Alexander VII praised this scientific hagiography, perhaps with excessive generosity: "Never had there been undertaken up to that time any work more useful and more glorious to the Church." Bolland's work was not without critics, among whom was the Spanish Inquisition, because some treasured legends concerning the saints were exposed as legends. The Carmelites found, for instance, that their Order was not founded by the prophet Elijah. Not considered a threat to the Church, the Bollandists Society was able to survive the SuppressionActa Sanctorum each containing over 1,000 pages had been printed back in 1643.
ACTA of the Bollandists
Today in this scriptorium sanctuary the Bollandists still research the lives of saints in order to present to us as honest and clear a picture as possible of the lives of those who are now with God. They can well boast of one of the best historical libraries in Europe and now have published over 100 volumes. Today also the Bollandist have their own url location http://www.kbr.be/~socboll/ on the World Wide Web. (Ban, Ham, JLx, Som)
St. Francis Borgia, S.J. (Spanish: 1510-1572) had an unusual background for a Jesuit not only having a family and being the father of eight childrs and became a friend and adviser of Ignatius of Loyola, who gave him the care of the missions in the East and West Indies. In 1560 he succeeded Laynez to become the Society's third Superior General. Concerned that Jesuits were in danger of getting too involved in their work, he introduced the daily hour-long meditation. Under his generalship the Society established its missions in Florida, New Spain and Peru and greatly developed its internal structures, and for this Francis is sometimes called the Second Founder of the Society of Jesus . (Ban, Cor, Ham, JLx, O'M, Som, Tyl)
Roger J Boscovich, S.J. (Croatian: 1711-1787) was a physicist, geometer, astronomer and philosopher. Roger had an older brother, Bartholomew, who was also a Jesuit mathematician and on occasion taught in Roger's place when he was needed elsewhere. Roger taught at the Roman College for 20 years, although the Jesuit General Luigi Centurione, S.J. thought his teachings too avant garde. When Laurence Ricci, S.J. became the Jesuit General, however, Boscovich was made a Visitor of the whole Jesuit Society. He was also a correspondent for the Royal Society of London, and a frequent contributor to the Jesuit Mémoires des Trévoux. The famous astronomer Joseph Lalande said there was no scholar in all Italy like Boscovich nor did he know any geometer as profound. Roger developed the first coherent description of atomic theory in his work Theoria Philosophiae Natural , which is one of the great attempts to explain the universe in a single idea. Often his own fellow Jesuits did not understand Roger and at one time listed him as an adversary to a cosmology thesis which theorized that matter was continuous and not made up of discrete particles.One of his many admirers, a pioneer in siesmology, Fr. Daniel Linehan, S.J. once gave these Jesuits ambiguous praise by stating: "Roger Boscovich was one of the brightest lights we (the Jesuits) we ever put out."
Roger's influence on modern atomic physics is undoubted. His legacy has been preserved in the special Boscovich Archives in the Bancroft Rare Books library at the University of California at Berkeley. Among the 180 manuscripts and 2,000 letters housed there are found many of his 66 scientific treatises as well as correspondence with the major scientists of his day. On the anniversaries of his publications, his birth, and his death, symposia are held throughout the worIndex of Forbidden Books .
After the Suppression of the Jesuits he became captain of optics in the French navy. Born in Ragusa (now Dubrovnic, Yugoslavia), Roger lived a long, fruitful life. Incisive in thought, adventuresome in spirit, and independent in judgment; he was a man of the eighteenth century in some respects, but far ahead of his time in others. A lunar crater is named to honor him. (Ban, DSB, Ham, JLx, Som)
Dominic Bouhours, S.J. (French: 1628-1702) gained a reputation as one of the masters of correct writing of his time. He was among the first to develop the idea of taste which he treated in his famous "Art of Criticism: or the Method of Making a Right Judgment upon Subjects of Wit and Learning". Dominic's work as a literary critics influenced the works of Nicholas Boileau, Jean de La Fontaine, Jacques Bénigne Bossuet, Dryden, Addison and Lord Chesterfield. Jean Racine introduced Dominic's tragedies with the accolade: "You are one of the supreme masters of our tongue." (Ban, Ham, JLx, Som)
Louis Bourdaloue, S.J. (French: 1632-1704) was a preacher for 34 years. His sermons reached classical perfection in their logic, structure and wealth of doctrine. In eloquence he ranked as one of the great master during the reign of Louis XIV and was called the "king of orators and the orator of kings." He preached five Lenten series of sermons and seven Advent series of sermons before the court. He was often invited to preach at ceremonies for all kinds of religious occasions. He emphasized the traditional doctrine of Church, which he explained and defended with great lucidity and was especially eloquent while speaking against Jansenism. Louis won for himself a high place in French literature: Fenelon said that his style "had perhaps arrived at the perfection of which our language is capable in that kind of eloquence." Voltaire was among many thinkers who referred to Louis as "One of the world's greatest speakers". (Ban, Ham, JLx, So
St. John de Brébeuf, S.J. (French: 1593-1649) born in Normandy, he suffered such poor health that it was doubted he would ever become a priest. Once in Canada, however, he found the harsh climate so wholesome that hardy Indian braves stood amazed at his inexhaustible powers of endurance and his ability to carry tremendous loads. He was called Echon which meant the load bearer . His massive size made them think twice before sharing a canoe with him for fear he would sink it. Brebeuf described the difficulty of learning the Huron language in one of his many letters back to France offering advice to those who felt they were called by God to New France: "You may have been a famous professor or theologian in France, but here you will merely be a student and with what teachers! The Huron language will be your Aristla crosse because it reminded him of a bishop's crosier (la crosse). According to histories of the game it was John de Brebeuf who named the present day version of the Indian game lacrosse . By 1650 the Huron nation had been exterminated, and the laboriously built mission was abandoned for a while. But it proved to be "one of the triumphant failures that are commonplace in the Church's history." These martyrdoms created a wave of vocations and missionary fervor in France. It also gave new heart to the missionaries already in New France. Like the Iroquois, they had imbibed the courage of John de Brébeuf. (Ban, Ham, JLx, Som, Tyl)
St. Alexander Briant, S.J. (English: 1553 - 1581) entered in the Society while in the Tower of London awaiting execution along with Edmund Campion. Alexander was a friend of Robert Persons and was with Robert's father when he died. He was finally arrested in Persons' house, taken to the Tower of London where, as Robert reported: "They kept pressing him under torture just to state where he had seen Fr. Robert Persons. He replied, 'You will never learn that from me; do whatever you can. I have seen him and I have lived with him and yet I will never tell you where.'" From prison, Alexander smuggled out a letter to Robert Persons. The Jesuits had devised a cunning method of using invisible ink made of common orange juice. It was a letter of exceptional beauty, expressing his desire to be admitted into the Society. His letter described such remarkable spiritual consolation during torture that he did not feel the pain. It was an experience described by other martyrs such as John Gerard. When the rack master threatened to make him a foot longer if he did not disclose the whereabouts of Robert Persons, Alexander laughed at him and defied him to go ahead and do it. Alexander spoke of the experience in a matter of fact way: "I was filled and replenished with a supernatural sweetness of spirit . . . cheerfully disposed and prepared to suffer and endure those torments . . .Whether what I am relating be miraculous or no, God knoweth, but true it is that in the end of the torture, though my hands and feet were violently stretched and racked, I was without sense and feeling well nigh of all grief and pain." Alexander was accepted into the Society and after completing his novitiate in the Tower of London, was executed at Tyburn minutes after Edmund Campion. (Ban, Cor, Tyl)
St. John de Brito, S.J. (Portuguese: 1647-1693) is the Apostle of Madura, India, where he was martyred. When John volunteered for and was assigned to India, his mother Senora de Brito objected strenuously to the Jesuit Provincial, to the the papal nuncio of Portugal and to the Jesuit Superior General in Rome. When the Portuguese royal fleet sailed in 1673, John was one of the 25 Jesuits it carried to India. During his time there John converted more than 10,000 Indians to Christianity. From the very start of his mission he familiarized himself with the complicated procedures of the Indian caste system and discovered that most Christians belonged to the lowest, most despised caste. In order for Christianity to have a lasting influence, de Brito realized that members of the higher caste must also be converted, so he established himself as an Indian ascetic a Pandara Suami. He lived apart as they lived, dressed in a saffron cloak and turban. John set up small retreats in the wilderness in southern India where interested Indians could visit him. In time he became an accepted Suami, his reputation grew and he converted many, among whom was a certain prince who was told to give up his wives. One of the wives, the niece of the rajah, took this less than graciously and had John arrested, but he was later released. Because of his success in converting many Indians to Christianity, the Brahmins, the highest Indian caste, sought to kill him. They were finally successful; the rajah's soldiers apprehended and imprisoned John and his Catechists and fettered them with heavy chains. The rajah then ordered that he be executed, not anticipating, however, what a good sport John would be. Reaching the spot selected for his martyrdom, he knelt down in prayer. The rajah's order was publicly read, and when the executioner hesitated to do his job, John encouraged him, "My friend, I have prayed to God. On my part, I have done what I should do. Now do your part. Carry out the order you have received." He did, and John's death only spurred on the efforts of the remaining Christians. (Ban, Cor, Ham, JLx, Som, Tyl)
Paschase Broet, S.J. (French: 1500-1562) was one of the first ten companions of Ignatius along with Xavier, Laynez, Faber, Salmerón, Simon Rodriguez, Bobadilla, Jay and Codure. He was sent by Pope Paul III to Sienna and shortly after he arrived, reports came back to Ignatius of startling results from his retreats and sermons. One of the early problems of the Society was to obtain legal recognition for their corporate existence in France. Broët did not let the king forget the Jesuits and in 1560 King Francis II issued a decree recognizing the Jesuit Order.
Accompanied by Alfonso Salmerón, Paschase was sent as papal nuncio to Ireland by Ignatius at the request of Pope Paul III in 1542 to find out what kind of apostolate was possible there. Ignatius had originally planned to send Francis Xavier who may have discerned better the caliber and potential of the Irish people. Paschase, however, lacked this insight and sent such a gloomy prognosis back to Rome that no Jesuit apostolate began until two decades later. In the following centuries, however, the Jesuit Irish mission flourished in Ireland with, schools, colleges, parishes and Sodalities; these were quite active in caring for the sick in times of Ireland's many plagues. (Ban, Ham, JLx, O'M, Som)
Peter Brumoy, S.J. (French: 1688-1742) taught rhetoric and humanities at Caen and taught mathematics at the college of Louis-le-Grand. He had a strong interest in drama, however, and his principle work was Greek Theater . The latter was criticized by Voltaire for being too classical, in fact Voltaire was distressed with the very popular and widespread presentations of Jesuit theater because he thought that they put too much stress on classical drama. (Ham, JLx)
Ven. Bruno Bruni, S.J. (Italian: 1590-1640) was a missionary to Ethiopia and was one of the last two to be martyred there along with the talented linguist, theologian, mathematician Ven. Louis Cardeira. The Jesuit mission had been progressing rapidly with the help of the negus Susenyos who had become a Catholic convert, but when he was driven out by the Orthodox Monophysites, the Jesuits were ordered out of the country and their property confiscated. The Jesuits did not leave and were captured, imprisoned and then hanged. (Tan, Tyl)
Philip Buonanni, S.J. (Italian: 1639-1725) was a chemist, not only skilled in chemical analysis and experimentation but also familiar with the early publications on the nature of lacquer, some of which included the works of Athanasius Kircher, S.J. As a result of his studies conducted in Florence between 1690 and 1700, Philip was the first to publish an accurate and authoritative report on Chinese lacquer with applications to lacquer techniques in Europe. He concluded that Europeans would have to be satisfied with substitutes for the superior Chinese resin, since it could neither be shipped to Europe nor could its source, the Tsil tree, be cultivated in the western hemisphere. Philip's booklet was immediately recognized as a scholarly tract as well as a sound guide and his findings have been considered a milestone in the history of European lacquer because they ended the uncertainty about the differences between oriental and occidental ingredients. (Ham, JLx, Som)
Peter Calatayud, S.J. (Spanish: 1689-1773) was called "The Xavier of Spain" because of the remarkable success of his spiritual apostolate among the unchurched. He helped lift his country from spiritual malaise as he spread the retreat movement among the diocesan priests of Spain. Peter led a most austere and selfless religious life and was among the most popular preachers of the time. For 40 years he traveled throughout Spain giving missions which attracted thousands to the sacraments. When he was requested by a diocese to give a retreat to priests, it was so well received that more dioceses requested the same. This grew into a retreat movement, and soon he was preaching priests' retreats to more than 400 priests at a time. His deeply spiritual life helped make his efforts at spreading the new Devotion to the Sacred Heart of Jesus catch fire among Jesuits as well as lay people, and soon became a central part of the whole Jesuit apostolate in Spain. (Ban, Ham, JLx, Som)
St. Edmund Campion, S.J. (English: 1540-1581) was a great disappointment for Queen Elizabeth because he twice turned down her generous offers of prestigious offices in the Church of England. It cost him his life. Born in London the son of a Catholic bookseller he would have entered his father's trade except for the fact that his bright wit earned him a scholarship to St. John's College, Oxford. He became a most sought after speaker and on one occasion so impressed Queen Elizabeth that she offered him a deaconate in the new state religion. He eventually fled to the continent, where he joined the Jesuit Order. After ordination he returned to London and there he wrote a manifesto of his mission which has come to be known as Campion's Brag in which he declared that his coming to England had a religious and not a political purpose. So direct, audacious and powerful was this manifesto that it was widely distributed to help encourage Catholics to remain firm in their faith. Eventually he was captured and taken to the Tower of London where he was stretched on the rack before execution. After extended pain he was "hanged, drawn and quartered" and each quarter of his body was displayed on the four city gates. Many were very touched by the words in Campion's Brag : "And touching our Society, be it known to you that we have made a league - all the Jesuits in the world - cheerfully to carry the cross you shall lay upon us, and never to despair your recovery, while we have a man left to enjoy your Tyburn, or to be racked with your torments or consumed with your prisons. The expense is reckoned, the enterprise is begun; it is of God, it cannot be withstood. So the faith was planted; so it must be restored." (Ban, Bas, Cor, Ham, JLx, O'M, Som, Tyl)
Intoduction to Jesuit Portraits
Contents Names of 202 Jesuits
Jesuit Portraits Chapter 1 A to Be
Jesuit Portraits Chapter 2 Bo to Cam
Jesuit Portraits Chapter 3 Can to Cos
Jesuit Portraits Chapter 4 Cot to Go
Jesuit Portraits Chapter 5 Gr to K
Jesuit Portraits Chapter 6 L to Me
Jesuit Portraits Chapter 7 Mi to Pe
Jesuit Portraits Chapter 8 Pi to Ri
Jesuit Portraits Chapter 9 Ro to St
Jesuit Portraits Chapter 10 Su to Z