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Chapter 5 (Gr-K)
Not all, but many of these portraits came from a rare century-old work concerning famous Jesuits, Alfred Hamy's Galerie Illustree. The names are arranged alphabetically in ten chapters: A-Be, Bo-Cam, Can-Cos, Cot-Go, Gr-K, L-Me, Mi-Pe, Pi-Ri, Ro-St, Su-Z. At the end of each entry are listed, in abbreviated form, the specific sources which I used for writing the short sketch for each man. The eleven triliteral symbols (Ban, Bas, DSB, Ham, JLx, McR, JLP, O'M, Som, Tan, Tyl) signify that the information came from the following eleven books which are more fully documented in the Intoduction to Jesuit Portraits.
Ban = Bangert, William, S.J. A History of the Society of Jesus
Bas = Bernard, S.J. The English Jesuits
DSB = Gillispie, Charles. C. Ed., Dictionary of Scientific Biography
Ham = Hamy, Alfred, S.J. Galerie illustree
JLx = Koch, Ludwig, S.J. Jesuiten Lexicon
McR = McRedmond, Louis To the Greater Glory. New York: MacMillan, 1991
JLP = Mertz, James, S.J. and Murphy, John, S.J. Jesuit Latin Poets
O'M = O'Malley, John, S.J. The First Jesuits
Som = Sommervogel, Carolus Bibliothèque de la compagnie de Jésus
Tan = Tanner, Mathia, S.J. Societas Jesu.
Tyl = Tylinda, Joseph, S.J. Jesuit Saints and Martyrs
Melchior Grodecz, S.J. (Polish: 1584-1619) was one of the three Martyrs of Kosice put to death at the hands of fanatical Calvinists along with Stephen Pongrácz and Mark Crisinus, who was the Cathedral Canon in Kosice. Melchior taught and preached in Prague. During the 30-Years' War, however, as Jesuits were driven from one place to another, Melchior's journeys through Moravia and Slovakia finally led to his martyrdom when he arrived in Kosice, Hungary where he went to help fortify the Catholics there. A Calvinist prince in Transylvania was taking advantage of Hungary's war involvement and moved to expand his territory. At the time Kosice was a stronghold of Hungarian Calvinists, and the few Catholics who lived in the city and its outlying districts had been without a priest for some time. Melchior came to help the Polish speaking Catholics and Stephen Pongrácz came for those who spoke a Slavic language or German. When the Calvinist Minister heard the Jesuits had arrived he sent his soldiers to arrest them. Melchior, Stephen and Mark were brutally burned, dismembered and then beheaded. The Calvinists refused to allow the remaining Catholic citizens to bury them until three months had passed. Tenacious as were the Calvinists in their hold on some quarters of this unhappy country they could not halt the creation of a powerful Catholic bastion there. (Ban, Cor, Ham, JLx, Tyl)
Joseph Gumella, S.J. (Spanish: 1686-1750) spent 35 years amidst the natives and the flora and fauna in the vast area of the Oronoco River in Venezuela. His 1741 publication of his floral specimens and botanical and ethnographical observations was a pioneer effort. Under his care a village flourished due to his clever craftsmanship as a carpenter, mason, architect and painter and in this way he won the hearts of the native Indians. Here in this village he introduced the coffee tree which soon spread into many other cities and countries in South America. (Ban, DSB, Ham)
Bartolomeu de Gusmao, S.J. (Brazilian 1685-1724) taught physics and mathematics and was convinced of the possibility and the desirability of manned flight. After studying the problem, theorizing and experimenting, he organized a public flight experiment in 1709 at the royal court in Lisbon. Using hot air under a kind of umbrella, he successfully flew down from a high tower. When, however, he tried to fly upward, he momentarily got off the ground but in doing so set fire to a part of the king's house. "Fortunately the king did not take it ill", an onlooker later wrote. (DSB, JLx)
John Hardouin, S.J. (French: 1646-1729) was a linguist, historian, philosopher, and theologian. He edited the councils of the Church, producing one of the most dependable and scholarly works of the early eighteenth century. He was known as a very generous person, a scholar with extremely original opinions, a very outspoken and eccentric man and a prodigious worker. (Ban, Ham, JLx, Som)
Maximilian Hell, S.J. (Hungarian: 1720-1792) taught mathematics in the Jesuit college at Leutschau, Hungary (now in Czechoslovakia). Later he was made director of the astronomy observatory in Vienna. After the Suppression of the Jesuits he continued working there as director, along with other members of the Society. Maximilian fell victim to the public defamation of Jesuits then in vogue when he was accused of altering his findings during a transit of Venus. His name was not cleared until a century later when in 1883 the famous astronomer Simon Newcomb found his readings to be correct, and his scholarship above suspicion. A 1970 Czechoslovakian stamp honors this Hungarian astronomer, dressed as a Laplander.
Maximilian's Lapland observation of Venus
It was in Lapland that he observed the transit of Venus across the sun's surface, the first one to do so.
Because of his many scientific adventures Maximilian was elected to the most prestigious scientific academies of Europe. For 37 years he published his unique periodical Ephemerides Astronomicae containing the scientific treatises and important observations of European scientists. At this time Jesuits directed 30 of the world's 130 major astronomical observatories. Maximilian had been so successful in setting up smaller observatories that in 1755 Maria Theresa of Austria and Hungary named Maximilian her court astronomer and commissioned him to organize a great central observatory in Vienna.
Hell's other adventures included experiments in applying magnetism to medicine. This was unchartered ground, but by assuming unconventional premises Hell started something quite remarkable. Using lodestone he devised an arrangement of magnetic plates for the lessening of pain from illnesses such as rheumatism from which he himself suffered. He met with considerable success in relieving the pain. His magnetic medicine attracted the attention of a young man named Franz Mesmer, recently graduated from the Jesuit University of Dillingen in Bavaria. Mesmer disregarded the magnets and developed a different, but even more peculiar theory of healing based on circulating cosmic fluids in the body. Although the special hypotheses of both men were found to be groundless they had found a way to make suffering patients oblivious to pain. Eventually later investigators of these phenomena made "mesmerism", or hypnotism, an accepted medical practice. A lunar crater is named after Maximilian Hell. (Ban, DSB, Ham, JLx, Som)
Thomas Holland, S.J. (English: 1600-1642) became one of the victims of the many priest-hunters in London who eagerly made their living by betraying priests for money. Thomas ministered to the beleaguered Catholics under very difficult conditions in cramped quarters. He carried on his ministry at night or in the early morning and had to stay indoors during the day, not even able to walk in the garden. Thomas became a master of disguises, using different aliases and passing himself off as a foreigner since he was fluent in French, Flemish, and Spanish. Finally he was arrested on suspicion of being a priest and was brought to Newgate prison for trial where he was found guilty and was condemned to death. His response was "Thanks be to God"; a few days later he was hanged, drawn and quartered. (Ban, Bas, Ham, Tyl)
Sidronius de Hossche, S.J. (Belgian: 1596-1653) was a Latin poet who wrote The Tears of St. Peter, a book of poems on the repentance and sorrow of Peter after his denial of Christ. He wrote The Course of Human Life , nine elegies, all of which use sea and ship imagery. Sidronius taught for a few years at the court of the Hapsburg prince, Archduke Leopold William of Austria, Governor of the Spanish Netherlands. But life at court did not suit this simple shepherd's son, and he turned to preaching. Sidronius' poetic works were first printed as occasional pieces upon such events as the publication of some theological treatises by Leonard Lessius, S.J. or as an act of thanksgiving to the Blessed Virgin. (Ham, JLx, JLP)
Bl. William Ireland, S.J. (English: 1636-1679) was an English martyr falsely accused in the 1678 plot of Titus Oates, a renegade Anglican minister, who out of hatred for the Jesuits concocted a bizaare story accusing the English Jesuits of planning the assassination of the king, of overthrowing government and of reinstating the Catholic Church. This fabricated "Popish" plot roused the fury of the nation and renewed Catholic persecutions. William Ireland, traveling under the name Ironmonger, was arrested along with others and thrown into the Newgate Prison where he suffered for three months before his trial. Titus Oates testified falsely that he had been present at the special conference of Jesuits planning the assassination, and it would have succeeded except for a faulty pistol. Although Ireland could produce many witnesses to prove that he was in Wales at that time, it took only one bribed witness to convict William of high treason and to sentence him to be hanged, drawn, and quartered. The execution was postponed by royal order, because King Charles II never believed that the Jesuits were associated with any plot against him. Eventually, fearing the people's anger, Charles allowed the executions to take place in order to appease the crowd. At Tyburn William professed his innocence and denied any complicity against the king's life, then added; "I beg God Almighty to shower down a thousand blessings upon this whole kingdom." (Bas, Cor, Ham, JLx, Tyl)
St. Francis Jerome, S.J. (Italian: 1642-1716) had an apostolate among the poor slum-dwellers in Southern Italy, spending almost all his time with them in the most unsanitary and disreputable parts of the cities.
Francis in Naples
He brought them the ministry of the Word, the sacraments of Penance and the Eucharist. He had entered the Jesuits already an ordained priest of 10 years and was sent into the streets of Naples. He would go about preaching and urging his hearers to come to Mass and Communion on the Communion Days, which at the time occurred only on the third Sunday of the month. He spent Monday and Saturday preaching in the streets of Naples and Tuesday to Friday preaching in the suburbs. It was said that he sometimes gave up to 40 short sermons in a single day. When the third Sunday arrived, no one was surprised to see that the Masses at the Church were crowded.
He would also visit the slaves who were chained to their places and would try to console and relieve their suffering in whatever way he could. When Francis requested to go to the Japanese missions, his Superior's response was: "the Kingdom of Naples is to be your Japan." Some clerics tried to obstruct his work by reporting to the Bishop that Francis who was occupied with street preaching and the worst kind of sinners was not suitable to give retreats to priests and nuns who were living in virtue. Restrictions were then put on Francis' work, but he continued his labors in Naples and its suburbs until 1702 when he was asked to carry his mission outside Naples to distant places. Eventually the entire Kingdom of Naples heard about his prophecies and his healings, and everyone considered him a distinguished preacher, not because his sermons possessed classical elegance, but because his simple language and expressions were filled with earnestness and conviction of the truth. (Ban, Cor, JLx, Som, Tyl)
St. Isaac Jogues, S.J. (French: 1607-1646) was martyred for the faith at Ossernenon in upstate New York. Born in Orleans, France, he entered the Jesuits at Rouen, studied philosophy at la Flèche slightly after René Descartes studied there. After ordination he came to Quebec in "New France" from where he was assigned to work with the Huron nation which numbered around 30,000. This meant a canoe trek of over 800 miles, which included carrying the canoe overland past cascades. The mission there, called "Sainte Marie," was by then a thriving enterprise. Jesuits had taught the natives how to cultivate the land and care for cattle and fowl. Other tribes, such as the Chippewas, were so impressed that they asked the Jesuits to start a mission among their people. In 1642, Isaac was captured by the Mohawks, one of the five Iroquois nations, and taken to Auriesville in New York State. During his 13-month captivity he was subject to brutal cruelties. Nevertheless he taught Christianity to those who would listen and succeeded in baptizing 60 members of the tribe. Eventually he was rescued by the Dutch of Fort Orange and returned to France in 1644. While recuperating in France and preparing to return to his mission among the Mohawks, who had treated him so dreadfully four years earlier, he wrote to a fellow Jesuit: "My heart tells me that if I have the blessing of being sent on this mission, I shall not return." That year when he returned to New France, he was tomahawked to death while on a peace mission to the Iroquois. (Ban, Cor, Ham, JLx, Som, Tyl)
Joseph Jouvancy, S.J. (French: 1643-1719) had a reputation as one of France's most distinguished teachers. In his History of the Society of Jesus, he narrated the story of the Society's expulsion from France in 1594 and the condemnation by Parliament of Bellarmine, Suarez, and Santarelli. These accusations stung the French Parliament which took its revenge on the Society and caused a great deal of political problems for the French Jesuits.
Joseph felt strongly that the only those expert in Latin and Greek were truly educated, a view not shared by many. One of his companions retorted: "Hardly ten out of a thousand alumni, even with a full course in the humanities and philosophy, could write a good letter. The Latin and composition work given them is so monotonous that it inevitably leads to idleness and boredom." Later Jesuits sought a freer and wider curriculum maintaining that: "The concept of humanism is not itself identified with any specific category of subjects as such." Regarding Jesuit school dramatic presentations, Joseph also fought another losing battle opposing comedy in school plays because "this form of art easily leads to all kinds of buffoonery, which is not compatible with the religious training of the young." (Ban, Ham, JLx, Som)
Francis Kareu, S.J. (Lithuanian: 1731-1802) became Superior General for the Jesuits in Russia during the time of the Suppression (1773-1814) and was recognized by Pope Pius VII as "duly charged and entrusted with the requisite and necessary authority to follow and maintain the rule of St. Ignatius Loyola." When Pope Clement IV's papal nuncio tried to persuade Tsaritsa Catherine to promulgate the brief of the Suppression of the Society, Dominus ac Redemptor, Catherine replied that she regarded it as her most important duty to promote national education and was, therefore, unable to despoil an order which devoted itself so zealously to educational work. At the age of 64 Francis was elected Vicar General and in 1801 Pope Pius VII directed that Francis Kareu and his successors be known as Superior General of the Society, and no longer merely Vicar-General. (Ban, Ham, JLx, Som)
Leonard Kessel, S.J. (Belgian: 1518-1574) became the first rector of the College for Jesuit scholastics (seminarians) in Cologne. He was told by Peter Canisius that the principal reason for the years of study enjoined upon Jesuit scholastics was to make them effective preachers. Leonard reported that Ignatius prescribed that no academic discipline that could help preachers was to be neglected. Leonard encouraged opening to non-Jesuit students these schools which were meant only for Jesuits. He sent Ignatius his opinion that if Jesuits would begin to teach publicly, there is every hope for "gaining all youth to Christ". About this time Ignatius was doing just that, opening schools in Gandia in Spain, Messina, and Palermo. By 1551, because of financial support by the duke of Gandia, the Roman College opened for non-Jesuit students and over its door hung the inscription "School of Grammar, Humanities, and Christian Doctrine, Free". (Ban, Ham, O'M)
Peter Kasui Kibé, S.J. (Japanese: 1587-1639) was an educated descendent of Japanese sailors and was exiled to Macao by a Shogun. Then he traversed Persia en route to Jerusalem, then to Rome to be ordained. He returned to the Orient and spent several years in clandestine ministry to Christian fugitives along the Mekong River (today's Thailand). He finally reached Japan and worked underground until his capture. He was then tortured and hung over the famous "sulfur pits" until he died. (JLx)
Bl. Leonard Kimura, S.J. (Japanese: 1575-1619) was a martyr of Japan and his grandfather was the first Japanese person to be baptized by Francis Xavier. His family lived in Nagasaki and there he attended the Jesuit school and for a dozen or so years served as lay catechist traveling with the Jesuit priests on their missionary trips. Leonard became a Jesuit Coadjutor Brother, served as cook and tailor and again took up his catechetical career and joined the fathers on their apostolic journeys. When the Jesuits were expelled in 1614 Leonard stayed behind and for several years worked alone and lived the life of a fugitive. Eventually he was captured with a small group of Christians. At the time of his arrest he was dressed as a Japanese gentleman and his captors did not know that they had caught a Jesuit in their net.
Leonard Kimura and companions
At his trial the judge offered him the usual 200 pieces of silver if he would reveal the whereabouts of a Jesuit priest, but Br. Kimura honestly answered, "I know one Jesuit; he is a Coadjutor Brother and not a priest and I am that Brother."
Because of this admission he was sent to prison. There he did catechetical work and set about instructing the jailers and non-Christian prisoners in the fundamentals of the Catholic faith. Over this long period he made 96 converts and transformed the prison into a Christian community with fixed times for prayer and meditation. At his trial Governor Gonroku condemned him to "death by slow fire." A contemporary who attended the execution of Leonard and his four companions recorded that there were about 20,000 people present. Never did they see five men die so joyfully. Leonard Kimura was one of the 33 Jesuits who died during the Great Persecution. (Ban, Cor, Tyl)
S.G. Eusebio Kino, S.J. (Italian: 1645-1711) was born in the Italian Alps not far from Trent. He entered the Jesuits and after his training was assigned to the Indies. He was pleased with this assignment since his patron was St. Francis Xavier. Later, however, his assignment was changed, sending him to America. He had been a teacher of mathematics, but besides this skill he also brought with him a thorough training in astronomy, geography and cartography. Then in the New World he became a colonizer, a cattleman, an agriculturist, a builder and an historian of the development of the West. He arrived in Mexico in 1681. The Indians loved and respected him, and soon he became for the Pima Indians their friend, their father, their protector and their educator. Eusebio founded 24 missions, 19 ranches and a number of towns; he explored and mapped Sonora and Southern Arizona and proved that Lower California was not an island, as had been widely believed, but a peninsula. Indefatigable rider, he seemed to live in the saddle. He taught the Indians how to raise cattle. After 30 years of very productive work, he died while celebrating High Mass at the dedication of a new Church in honor of Francis Xavier in Magdalena. The town changed its name to Magdalena de Kino.
Besides being a dedicated and enthusiastic missionary Kino was the first real scientific explorer of the vast American Southwest. Eusebio was one of the great cartographers and explorers of the American Southwest; Mexico has a commemorative stamp so to honor him. The National Statuary Hall in Washington, D.C. inaugurated in 1864 celebrated its 100th anniversary by inducting Eusebio Kino into its "Hall of Fame" in 1964 . Each of the 50 states has two representatives in Statuary Hall. Eusebio was the choice of the State of Arizona, thus making him the second Jesuit after Père Marquette to be so honored. Arizona also honors him with a large equestrian statue in the middle of the bustling city of Tucson. (Ban, DSB, JLx, Som, Tyl)
Athanasius Kircher, S.J. (German: 1602-1680) taught at the Roman College for many years and wrote on numerous scientific subjects. With contributions to almost every branch of science such as mathematics, astronomy, harmonics, acoustics, chemistry, microscopy and medicine, he played a significant part in the early scientific revolution. He was also a phenomenal linguist, an avid collector of scientific experiments and geographical exploration. He probed the secrets of the subterranean world, deciphered archaic languages, experimented with music-therapy, optics and magnetism. In his 39 books on the sciences, some quite massive, he shows his learning of the past, ever open to the developments and possibilities of the future. His Kircher Museum was considered one of the best science museums in the world. Among his inventions are listed the megaphone, the pantometrum for solving geometrical problems, and a counting machine. His discoveries include sea phosphorescence as well as microscopically small organisms (germs) which transmit epidemic diseases. It was by facilitating a wide diffusion of knowledge, by stimulating thought and discussion by his vast collections of scientific information, that Kircher earned a place among the fathers of modern science and the titles of "universal genius " and "master of a hundred arts ". (Ban, DSB, Ham, JLx, Som)
St. James Kisai, S.J. (Japanese: 1533-1597) came from a pagan family, was raised a Buddhist, but he was later baptized. He married a Christian and she bore him a son. His wife eventually decided to return to her former Buddhist beliefs. When he was unable to talk her out of her decision, he separated from her and entrusted his son to a Christian family in order to insure the child's proper upbringing. James then went to Osaka and found employment with the Jesuits, working around the house and caring for the guests. When the Jesuits saw how well he knew and lived his Faith, they made him a catechist and eventually he became a novice Coadjutor Brother. He was arrested with Paul Miki, taken to a prison and with 22 others condemned to be crucified in Nagasaki. As the 24 prisoners were led to a hill for execution two Christians tried to comfort them and they were added to those who were to die. All 26 were crucified. (Ban, JLx, Tan)
St. Stanislaus Kostka, S.J. (Polish: 1550-1568) was 17 years old when he entered the newly founded Jesuit Order. In 1567 the Roman Novitiate of Saint Andrea was started, and one year later, this 18-year-old novice died. Stanislaus was recognized for accomplishing the ordinary things in life in an extraordinary way through a vibrant faith. The liturgy speaks of him "accomplishing much in a short time". Saints have always fascinated ordinary people like ourselves: they matter a great deal. John Coleman says that personal holiness "shatters our ordinary notions of what makes human life whole. Saints disrupt conventional assumptions about what is real and worth our while and what is not." It is not often that a brand new religious novitiate is blessed by the presence of a saint among its first novices. Stanislaus as a student at the Jesuit College in Vienna, gave the measure of his determination to respond to God's call to the Jesuit Society, against the set opposition of his angered father and sadistic brother, by the fatiguing journeys he made on foot from Vienna to Augsburg, and then on to the Jesuit novitiate in Rome. (Ban, Cor, Ham, JLx, Som, Tyl)
Intoduction to Jesuit Portraits
Contents Names of 202 Jesuits
Jesuit Portraits Chapter 1 A to Be
Jesuit Portraits Chapter 2 Bo to Cam
Jesuit Portraits Chapter 3 Can to Cos
Jesuit Portraits Chapter 4 Cot to Go
Jesuit Portraits Chapter 5 Gr to K
Jesuit Portraits Chapter 6 L to Me
Jesuit Portraits Chapter 7 Mi to Pe
Jesuit Portraits Chapter 8 Pi to Ri
Jesuit Portraits Chapter 9 Ro to St
Jesuit Portraits Chapter 10 Su to Z
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