1. I break.

2. He stops.

3. We break.

4. They have.

5. I leave.

6. You (pl.) kill.

7. They take.

8. She leaves.

9. You (sg.) have.

10. It has.


1. I used to have.

2. He used to have.

3. We were leaving.

4. They were taking.

5. I was killing

6. You (pl.) were leaving.

7. They used to have.

8. She was breaking.

9. You (sg.) were stopping.

10. It was breaking.


1. I honor.

2. He sees.

3. We honor

4. They see.

5. I was honoring.

6. She was seeing.

7. They were seeing.

8. You (pl.) see.

9. You (sg.) were seeing.

10. She honors.

11. We stop.

12. You (sg.) honor.


1. We love.

2. He makes.

3. We call.

4. He was calling.

5. We were making.

6. You (sg.) call.

7. They used to have.

8. He used to love.

9. I was breaking.

10. He was taking.

11. They do not make.

12. We were doing wrong.

13. He kills and does wrong.

14. I love but you (sg.) do wrong.

15. They take but I call.

16. You (pl.) do wrong.

17. We love but you (sg.) kill.

18. They honor but he does wrong.

19. She makes and I take.

20. He was making.


1. I love Philippos.

2. Philippos has a brother.

3. An Athenian was calling Philippos.

4. Philippos used to have friends.

5. Enemies were making dangers for Philippos.

6. We honor a friend of Philippos.

7. They see a road.

8. Philippos kills Kyros by means of stones.

9. Friends of Athenians have enemies.


1. We take a gift.

2. Trees love plains.

3. Philippos sees trees in a plain.

4. A plain has trees.

5. They were taking gifts.


1. Pamphile has brothers.

2. We love Pamphile.

3. They used to leave garrisons in villages.

4. Athenians do not do wrong in peace.

5. Friends of Pamphile kill Athenians by means of stones.


1. Pamphile has good brothers.

2. He calls Pamphile beautiful.

3. They used to leave unjust garrisons in bad villages.

4. Athenians do not do wrong in a good peace.

5. Bad friends of beautiful Pamphile kill good Athenians.


1. The Athenian leaves the village.

2. The Athenians honor the brothers of Philippos.

3. They call the Athenians good.

4. They leave the gift for the garrison in the village.

5. The friends of the villages love their brothers.

6. The beautiful peace makes the bad enemies good friends.

7. The garrison takes the gift.


1. Philippos has wisdom.

2. The villages have citizens.

3. Lysias has friends. 

4. The Persians have wisdom. 

5. Just citizens love peace.

6. The Athenians honor Lysias.

7. The friends of Lysias take the gifts.

8. He was making dangers for the citizens. 

9. They were making danger for Lysias.

10. They see the dangers in the sea.

11. The small village honors handsome citizens.

12. The small plain has small stones.


1. Pamphile is beautiful.

2. Philippos is handsome.

3. The Athenians are good.

4. You (sg.) are unjust.

5. The Persians were bad.

6. The stone was small.

7. The road is bad.

8. You (pl.) are Athenians.

9. I was unjust.

10. We are just.

11. You (sg.) were good.

12. I am handsome.

13. Wisdom is beautiful.

14. She was unjust.


1. I broke.

2. He stopped.

3. I killed.

4. You (sg.) broke.

5. You (pl.) stopped.

6. They broke.

7. He honored.

8. They made.

9. We loved.

10. I made.

11. You (sg.) called.


1. I had.

2. He left.

3. We took.

4. You (pl.) took.

5. She saw.

6. They took.

7. We had.

8. You (sg.) left.

9. They had.

10. They saw.


1. The man sees the women.

2. The women see the man.

3. The man's wife sees the child.

4. The men's wives see the children.

5. The old men leave gifts for the deities.

6. The men leave guards for the thieves.

7. Peace is good for men and women and children.

8. The village has unjust men and bad women.

9. Pamphile saw an unjust man.

10. The Athenians honored old men.


1. He runs from the village.

2. He runs out of the village.

3. He runs through the village.

4. He runs about the village.

5. He sees the citizens in the plain.

6. I saw the woman with her child.

7. Pamphilos was beside the tree.

8. He ran down the road.

9. He ran up the road.


1. He calls Pamphilos' name.

2. We call the names of Pamphilos and Kyros.

3. They saw the chariots in the army.

4. A day is a part of the year.

5. He left a part of the profit for Pamphile.

6. He took profit from the wisdom of the citizens.

7. Unjust profits are never good.


1. The king of the Persians is good.

2. He saw the king's city.

3. He saw the cities of the kings.

4. Good citizens do not honor kings.

5. Just cities do not leave gifts for kings.

6. The ships are on the sea.

7. He sees the ships on the sea.


1. The road is safe.

2. The roads are safe.

3. They hear the false word of the king.

4. We hear the false words of kings.

5. He does not honor a false king.

6. The Persians sacrificed to false gods.

7. All men are good.

8. All the citizens in the whole city were evil.

9. They sacrifice to all the gods and all the goddesses.

10. I saw one man in the village.

11. I saw one woman.

12. I saw nothing.

13. I saw all the men and all the women.

23: Use a participle whenever possible

1. While running he fell.

2. Having killed his enemies, the king siezed the city.

3. Stopping the army of the Persians the Athenians remained free.

4. The barbarians sacrifice to the gods, leaving gifts on the plain.

5. Those who love their fatherland are good citizens.

6. Those who saw the enemy fled.

7. The woman who saw the barbarian fled.

8. He stopped the citizen from speaking.

9. He happened to see Kyros in the village.

10. We happened to hear Lysias when he was speaking in the village.


1. The city is large.

2. Kyros is big.

3. There is much danger on the sea.

4. He saw a large chariot.

5. He saw many chariots.

6. The soldier killed many enemies with his large spear (δόρυ, δόρατος, τό).

7. He did not take much profit from his words.


1. He stops the Persians beside the river.

2. He stops in the village.

3. He kills himself.

4. I guard myself.

5. They take the gifts for themselves.

6. Loving others we make dangers for ourselves.

7. They go.

8. You (sg.) go.

9. By suffering we become strong. (use participle)

10. The king takes all the money for himself.

11. Guarding themselves the Athenians remain free.

12. You (pl.) do not become good by being unjust. (use participle)

13. They stop running.


1. He killed himself.

2. I was guarding myself.

3. They took the gifts for themselves.

4. Loving others we used to make dangers for ourselves.

5. They went.

6. You (sg.) use to go.

7. By suffering we became strong.

8. The king took all the money for himself.

9. Guarding themselves the Athenians remained free.

10. You (pl.) did not become good by lying.

11. Kyros became king by lying.

12. We stopped the Persians beside the river.

13. We stopped in the village.

14. They stopped running.


1. I am led.

2. I was led.

3. We are loved.

4. They are honored.

5. He is stopped.

6. You (sg.) were seen.

7. He was persuaded.

8. I was being led.

9. It was broken.

10. We were loved.

11. They were honored.

12. He was stopped.

13. You (pl.) are seen.

14. I was persuaded.


1. This man is good.

2. That man is good.

3. He saw that man.

4. He saw these women.

5. He did this.

6. We do that.

7. You did those things for this man.

8. I killed that man by means of this stone.

9. We saw these chariots in that village.

10. He took those gifts from this child.


1. He did it for me.

2. He saw us.

3. We saw them.

4. She is one of us.

5. Your father honors my king.

6. Kyros himself saw him.

7. We do it for you (pl.).

8. They saw your (sg.).

9. Kyros loves her.

10. He is on of you.

11. Their fathers sees your mather.


1. He saw the man who came with Kyros.

2. He heard the men whom Lysias sent.

3. We left a gift for the woman whom Lyias loved.

4. They took gifts from the men who were in the city.

5. The Athenians saw the ships which the king sent.


12. I will break.

13. We will stop ourselves.

14. You (sg.) will see.

15. I will call.

16. I will be good.

17. He will lead.

18. He will have.

19. They will take.

20. You (pl.) will love.

21. You (sg.) will take.

22. We will remain.

23. They will send.


1. If Pamphilos will kill Kyros, he will become king.

2. If Persians see Athenians, they flee.

3. If the Persians will see the Athenians, they will flee.

4. If you love a woman, you will honor her.

5. Whenever a man loves a woman he honors her.

6. When the Persians will see the Athenians, they will flee.

7. Whenever Kyros comes to Athens, the Athenians will fight.

8. Whenever Lysias speaks, I am pleased.


1. If Pamphilos should kill Kyros, he would become king.

2. If Persians saw Athenians, they fled.

3. If the Persians should see the Athenians, they would flee.

4. Whenever you loved a woman you honored her.

5. If and when Kyros should come to Athens, the Athenians would fight.

6. Whenever Lysias spoke, I was pleased.


1. If Pamphile loved me, I would be pleased.

2. If Pamphile had loved me, I would have been pleased.

3. If I were strong, I would not be afraid (φοβέομαι).

4. If the Athenians had been strong they would not have been afraid.

5. If you were afraid you would call my name.

6. If you had not been afraid, you would not have called my name.


1. Would that Lysias would come.

2. Would that Lysias were here.

3. Would that Lysias had come.

4. Would that the Persians would be stopped.

5. Would that the Athenians had won.


1. He came in order to kill Kyros.

2. Lysias sent the soldiers in order to find water.

3. He guards the thief so that he will not flee.

4. We will flee from the Persians in order not to be harmed.

5. The gods send gifts to men in order to be honored by them.


1. To love others is good.

2. Kyros lies concerning finding the money.

3. By finding the money Kyros became rich.

4. He arranged the murder of Kyros (i.e. the "to kill Kyros").

5. We wish to find Lysias.

6. It is necessary to kill Lysias.

7. He ordered me to kill Lysias.

8. We wish Lysias to find the money.

9. He arranged Lysias' murder of Kyros (i.e. the "Lysias to kill Kyros").


1. I say that Kyros is king.

2. I think that Kyros is king.

3. I see that Kyros is king.

4. Pamphilos said that Kyros was king.

5. Pamphilos thought that Kyros had killed his father.

6. Pamphilos saw that Kyros had run away.

7. Pamphilos thought that he (i.e. Pamphilos) was king.

8. Pamphilos saw that he (i.e. Pamphilos) had killed his father.

9. They say that the Persians are bad.

10. They think that the Persians will flee.

11. They will see that peace is good.

12. You will see that I spoke the truth.

13. You will think that I spoke the truth, and you will not see that you had been deceived.


1. I place.

2. They show.

3. We give.

4. We caused to stand.

5. We were placing.

6. They were giving.

7. He gives.

8. He was giving.

9. They placed.

10. I show.

11. We gave.

12. I placed.

13. I stood.

14. They place themselves.

15. I give to myself.

16. He sets in motion.

17. He was setting in motion.

18. He set in motion.

19. He sets himself in motion.

20. He set himself in motion.


1. Would that he would show.

2. Would that they would place.

3. Would that we would cause to stand.

4. Would that he would give.

5. Would that they would stand.

6. Would that she would give to herself.

7. Would that you (sg.) would show yourself.

8. Would that you (pl.) would set yourselves in motion.

9. Placing himself on the horse, he sets himself in motion against the enemy.

10. Having given the money, he took the gift.

11. Having given the money, she took the gift.

12. Kings set laws for others, citizens set laws for themselves.

13. He saw Lysias standing in the market.

14. He gave the money to the man standing by the king.

15. He thinks that Lysias gave the money to the king.

47: use pf. and plpf.

1. I have stopped Kyros.

2. Kyros has stopped.

3. We have been stopped.

4. They have seen.

5. They have been stopped.

6. Kyros had broken the peace.

7. The peace had been broken.

8. I had stopped.

9. We had stopped.

10. I had been stopped.

11. We had been stopped.

12. Kyros thinks that the peace has been broken.

13. The Athenians think that Kyros has broken the peace.

14. Having stopped his horse, Kyros dismounted (κατα-βαίνω).

15. The peace having been broken (gen. absolute), the Athenians and Persians will now make war.

16. The law has been written.

17. The money has been aken.

18. He had been led.

19. You (sg.) have been seen.

20. The words have been spoken.

21. The city has been seen.

22. I had been led.


1. Korinthos is a more ancient city.

2. Korinthos is a most ancient city.

3. Korinthos is not the most ancient of the Greek cities.

4. Korinthos is more ancient than Thessalonike.

5. I choose the stronger man.

6. We chose the strongest man.

7. They came by the most difficult roads.

8. I think Pamphilos is wiser than Kyros.

9. He gave the money to the worthier man.

10. He gave the money to the worthiest man.


1. Korinthos is a more beautiful city.

2. Korinthos was a most beautiful city.

3. Korinthos was the largest of the Greek cities.

4. Korinthos is larger than Thessalonike.

5. I choose the better man.

6. They chose the best man.

7. We came by the worst roads.

8. I think Pamphilos is smaller than Kyros.

9. We gave the money to the better man.

10. More men give money to the worst women.

11. This is sweeter.

12. To flee is more shameful, but it is also safer.

13. My body is larger than my hand.

14. It is better to fight by means of a larger spear ( δόρυ, δόρατος. τό).

50: Do each sentence twice, in the sing. and the pl.

24. Run away.

25. Take this.

26. Put that down.

27. Do these things.

28. Do not lie.

29. Never lie.

30. Call the Athenians together

31. Flee.

32. Stop that man.

33. Stop.

34. Take this for yourself.

35. Always obey your father.

36. Obey me now.

37. If you are not good, become good.

38. Honor your father and mother.

39. Love your friends and harm your enemies.